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桁架机械手

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:newwestlake.com.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)由(you)主(zhu)体(ti)、驱(qu)动系统和控制(zhi)系统三个基本部(bu)分(fen)(fen)组成。按机(ji)(ji)器人结(jie)构分(fen)(fen)类(lei)为(wei)直(zhi)角(jiao)坐标(biao)型(xing),机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)沿(yan)二维直(zhi)角(jiao)坐标(biao)系移(yi)(yi)动。主(zhu)体(ti)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)通(tong)常采(cai)(cai)用龙门(men)式结(jie)构,由(you)y向(xiang)横(heng)(heng)梁与导轨、z向(xiang)滑枕(zhen)(zhen)、十(shi)字滑座、立(li)柱、过渡连(lian)接(jie)板和基座等部(bu)分(fen)(fen)组成,z向(xiang)的(de)直(zhi)线运(yun)动皆(jie)为(wei)交(jiao)流伺服电动机(ji)(ji)通(tong)过蜗轮(lun)减(jian)速(su)器驱(qu)动齿(chi)轮(lun)与y向(xiang)横(heng)(heng)梁、z向(xiang)滑枕(zhen)(zhen)上固定的(de)齿(chi)条作滚(gun)动,驱(qu)动移(yi)(yi)动部(bu)件沿(yan)导轨快(kuai)速(su)运(yun)动。移(yi)(yi)动部(bu)件为(wei)质(zhi)量较轻的(de)十(shi)字滑座和z向(xiang)滑枕(zhen)(zhen),滑枕(zhen)(zhen)采(cai)(cai)用由(you)铝合金拉(la)制(zhi)的(de)型(xing)材。横(heng)(heng)梁采(cai)(cai)用方钢(gang)型(xing)材,在横(heng)(heng)梁上安装有导轨和齿(chi)条,通(tong)过滚(gun)轮(lun)与导轨接(jie)触,整(zheng)个机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)都(dou)悬挂在其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)速度快,加(jia)速度大,加(jia)减速时(shi)间短。当输(shu)送(song)较重的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)时(shi),惯(guan)量大,因此(ci),伺(si)(si)服驱动电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)要有足(zu)够(gou)的(de)(de)驱动和(he)(he)制动的(de)(de)能(neng)力(li),支撑元件(jian)也(ye)要有足(zu)够(gou)的(de)(de)刚度及(ji)强度。只有这样,才(cai)能(neng)使伺(si)(si)服电(dian)动机(ji)(ji)(ji)满足(zu)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)高响应、高刚度及(ji)高精度要求(qiu)。在选(xuan)择合(he)适伺(si)(si)服电(dian)动机(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)情况下,根据(ju)物料运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动的(de)(de)距离和(he)(he)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)行(xing)节拍(pai),计算出伺(si)(si)服系统的(de)(de)位移和(he)(he)轨迹,对(dui)驱动器(qi)(qi)PID参数进行(xing)动态调整。桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手根据(ju)接收到的(de)(de)位移、速度指令,经变化、放(fang)大并调整处理后,传(chuan)递给(ji)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动单元,通(tong)过光纤传(chuan)感器(qi)(qi)对(dui)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)行(xing)状态进行(xing)实时(shi)检测(ce),在高速搬运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)过程(cheng)中(zhong),运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动部件(jian)在极(ji)短的(de)(de)时(shi)间内(nei)到达给(ji)定(ding)的(de)(de)速度,并能(neng)在高速行(xing)程(cheng)中(zhong)瞬间准停,通(tong)过高分辩率绝(jue)对(dui)式(shi)编码器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)插补运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)算,控制机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)误(wu)差(cha)和(he)(he)测(ce)量误(wu)差(cha)对(dui)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动精度的(de)(de)影(ying)响。由于被输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)不同,质量也(ye)不同,因此(ci),桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手有多(duo)种规格和(he)(he)系列。在选(xuan)择时(shi),根据(ju)被输(shu)送(song)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)质量,加(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)节拍(pai)来选(xuan)取。但机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手的(de)(de)手臂,夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)方式(shi),则根据(ju)被输(shu)送(song)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)形(xing)状、结构及(ji)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床夹(jia)(jia)具定(ding)夹(jia)(jia)方式(shi)来设计(见图2)。

机械手能够借助可(ke)编程(cheng)序来处理(li)和执行任务(wu)。机械手主要(yao)由手图 1 臂、回转(zhuan)装(zhuang)置、运动(dong)部件(jian)及驱动(dong)部件(jian)组成。通过对工(gong)件(jian)外形(xing)或(huo)工(gong)件(jian)上(shang)(shang)定位(wei)(wei)支撑点定位(wei)(wei)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持工(gong)件(jian)。例如,在(zai)汽车发动(dong)机加(jia)工(gong)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)自动(dong)线物流输送中,桁架机械手的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持模块(kuai)(kuai)会根(gen)据(ju)缸(gang)(gang)体、缸(gang)(gang)盖、曲(qu)轴等工(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)外形(xing)特点,选取(qu)不同的(de)(de)定位(wei)(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持方式。柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)机械手上(shang)(shang)采用(yong)气缸(gang)(gang)和电机进行定位(wei)(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持模块(kuai)(kuai)的(de)(de)切换(huan)(huan)驱动(dong),一套(tao)机械手可(ke)完成不同品(pin)种的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)搬运工(gong)作。夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持定位(wei)(wei)模块(kuai)(kuai)可(ke)根(gen)据(ju)产品(pin)质量和外形(xing)的(de)(de)大小采用(yong)系列化设计,机械手上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持定位(wei)(wei)模块(kuai)(kuai)安(an)装(zhuang)方式相(xiang)同,针(zhen)对不同系列的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian),只需切换(huan)(huan)相(xiang)应的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持定位(wei)(wei)模块(kuai)(kuai)即可(ke),满足快速切换(huan)(huan)的(de)(de)需要(yao)。这样,当加(jia)工(gong)不同品(pin)种的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian),只须变换(huan)(huan)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持模块(kuai)(kuai)就(jiu)可(ke)实现,提(ti)高(gao)了桁架机械手的(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架机械(xie)手(shou)输送装置的发展及(ji)现状

自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)(zhan),经历了刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个时代。就目(mu)前而(er)(er)言, 在国内二者均有之(zhi)。刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)为(wei)棘轮棘爪、摆杆(gan)、抬起步(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)形式。随(sui)着加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)(zhan),由其组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)替代组(zu)(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),它以适应(ying)小批量多(duo)品(pin)种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点(dian),得到市场的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可(ke),并(bing)称(cheng)其为(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。这种(zhong)以加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),就其输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)装置或(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)带依(yi)然(ran)为(wei)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这类(lei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)又有了飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)形式以刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou))并(bing)存,或(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),即输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)全部(bu)(bu)由桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng),这是(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),即主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)也柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)配(pei)以桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),又称(cheng)之(zhi)为(wei)敏捷(jie)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)敏捷(jie)制造(zao)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)部(bu)(bu)分(fen)。自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)采用桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)可(ke)根据(ju)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配(pei)置随(sui)意改(gai)(gai)变,自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)之(zhi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装位置不再象刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)那样(yang),按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)或(huo)步(bu)距(ju)倍(bei)数的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求进行(xing)严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装,且输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)速度也可(ke)根据(ju)生产节拍及(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距(ju)离而(er)(er)改(gai)(gai)变。而(er)(er)真正体(ti)现柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)一(yi)(yi)面(mian)是(shi),当被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产品(pin)改(gai)(gai)变后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)(bu)分(fen)不会不适应(ying)而(er)(er)全部(bu)(bu)更换,只要(yao)改(gai)(gai)变输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)程序和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)局(ju)部(bu)(bu)结构即可(ke)。采用桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)更先(xian)进的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)面(mian)是(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)整体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化(hua)、智能化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协(xie)调统(tong)一(yi)(yi)。因此,桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)才(cai)在当今(jin)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上越(yue)来越(yue)多(duo)地被采用,使整个生产过(guo)(guo)程通过(guo)(guo)信(xin)息(xi)流系(xi)(xi)统(tong)进行(xing)控(kong)制。在加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)(guo)程中,所(suo)需各(ge)种(zhong)信(xin)息(xi)收集、处(chu)理、反馈,并(bing)通过(guo)(guo)电子计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)其他控(kong)制装置(液压、气(qi)压装置等(deng)),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)或(huo)运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)设备(bei)实行(xing)分(fen)级(ji)控(kong)制。信(xin)息(xi)流系(xi)(xi)统(tong)分(fen)为(wei)由中央管理计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物(wu)流控(kong)制计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控(kong)制计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各(ge)数控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)以及(ji)信(xin)息(xi)传送(song)(song)(song)(song)网络(luo)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)。目(mu)前,汽(qi)车(che)制造(zao)业(ye)中加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体(ti)、缸盖及(ji)曲轴等(deng)大批量关(guan)键零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大都采用了桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国内(nei)外(wai)的差距

当(dang)下,我国(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)发展很快,技(ji)(ji)术(shu)水(shui)平有(you)了(le)很大(da)的(de)(de)提高,与国(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)差距变得越(yue)来越(yue)小(xiao),甚至(zhi)有(you)些机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与国(guo)外(wai)相比已经没有(you)什(shen)么差距。特别(bie)是国(guo)家重(zhong)大(da)科技(ji)(ji)专(zhuan)项(xiang)的(de)(de)开展,为我国(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)上(shang)档(dang)次上(shang)水(shui)平提高了(le)加(jia)(jia)速度,成(cheng)(cheng)绩显而易见。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)这几年发展的(de)(de)特别(bie)快,但柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)技(ji)(ji)术(shu)水(shui)平和档(dang)次,较国(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)差距还(hai)很明显,国(guo)外(wai)采用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输送的(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)较为普遍,而国(guo)内(nei)却(que)为数不多(duo),国(guo)内(nei)庞大(da)的(de)(de)汽车生产(chan)市(shi)场所采用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)带桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输送的(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),大(da)多(duo)从国(guo)外(wai)进(jin)口。如无锡柴油发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)缸体(ti)缸盖(gai)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)由德国(guo)GROB公司总(zong)承包,由BZ800加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)、GROB专(zhuan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、清(qing)洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)线(xian)(xian)检(jian)具、辅(fu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)。输送采用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)空(kong)中(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)和机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)输送。仅以汽车制(zhi)造业(ye)而言,国(guo)内(nei)生产(chan)的(de)(de)柔性(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),采用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输送的(de)(de)屈指(zhi)可(ke)数。大(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)和沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)等(deng)(deng)生产(chan)出了(le)该方面的(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),并在(zai)生产(chan)实际中(zhong)得到(dao)了(le)应用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)。图(tu)4是大(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)生产(chan)的(de)(de)DKX017缸体(ti)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)柔性(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)两(liang)种缸体(ti),分(fen)别(bie)为四缸和六缸,其输送采用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)空(kong)中(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)和自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)两(liang)端为机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)(deng)形式。桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)两(liang)个,一个上(shang)料,一个下料。它(ta)的(de)(de)成(cheng)(cheng)功,标志着(zhe)我国(guo)国(guo)产(chan)由桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输送的(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)开始向国(guo)际水(shui)准(zhun)迈进(jin)。

上(shang)述提及的(de)(de)(de)(de)只是数量上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)比较,其实真(zhen)正的(de)(de)(de)(de)原因还是国(guo)(guo)(guo)产桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)技术(shu)水平(ping)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)有着一(yi)定的(de)(de)(de)(de)差距。柔性(xing)加工自动线(xian)采(cai)用的(de)(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou),也是从(cong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进口的(de)(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)。那时(shi),国(guo)(guo)(guo)内还没有专门生产桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)厂(chang)家。如今(jin),国(guo)(guo)(guo)内巨一(yi)等一(yi)些桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)生产厂(chang)家的(de)(de)(de)(de)涌出,为(wei)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产柔性(xing)加工自动线(xian)带来了(le)希望,进而(er)缩小了(le)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)在生产桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)方面的(de)(de)(de)(de)差距,国(guo)(guo)(guo)产桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)在柔性(xing)加工自动线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)应用也越(yue)来越(yue)多,从(cong)而(er)打破国(guo)(guo)(guo)产市场被外(wai)国(guo)(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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